Patient Education


Tooth Anatomy:

Tooth portion that project above the gum margin called as crown & portion that is embedded within bone beneath the gum is called as root. Structurally, tooth is composed of outermost toughest calcified covering known as enamel, Inner to that sensitive calcified layer present known as dentine. In centre tooth contain pulp. Pulp is made up of loose tissue containing blood vessels & nerves. It is life of tooth. All sensation whether of pain, hot or cold are all due to pulp damage.

Know your teeth… The human have two sets of teeth. The teeth of the first set are called “Deciduous or Milk Teeth”, Milk teeth are twenty in number Milk Teeth set contain 2 incisors 1 canine & 2 molars in each half of each jaw.


The permanent teeth are Thirty two in number permanent teeth set contain 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 permolars & 3 molars (1 wisdom molar) in each half of each jaw.

Selecting the right toothbrush :

  • Toothbrushes vary in design, size, length, hardness & arrangement of bristles.
  • Wearing of enamel depend on brushing method of individual & abrasiveness of the toothpaste.
  • Improper brushing can lead to painful recession (Downward shifting of gum) & triangular shaped defects in the neck areas of teeth.
  • To maintain the effective cleansing, it is must to replace your toothbrush as soon as bristles begin to fray.
    Generally with regular use brushes wear in about 3 to 4 months of time.

Manual vs. Powered toothbrushes
Powered toothbrushes are recommended for;

  • Individual lacking fine motor skills.
  • Patients with orthodontic appliances.
  • Small children, hospitalized or handicapped patients, person who need to have their teeth cleaned by someone else.
  • Anybody who prefers can use powdered toothbrushes. Best results by using powered toothbrushes are obtained only when  they are used in proper way. It can be valuable replacement for manual brush if used properly & regularly.However, when tooth brush cleaning ability is compared, it provides no superiority over manual tooth brushes.

Which toothpaste to use?

  • Toothpaste aid in cleaning & polishing.
  • Toothpaste contain abrasives such as aluminum oxides & silicon oxides, humectants, water detergent, flavoring & sweetening agents, therapeutic agents such as Fluoride coloring agents & preservatives.

Use of particular brand is totally depending on personal preference; however use of fluoridated tooth paste is must.




How many times should I brush?

Generally, everyone should brush twice a day. For children, brushing at night is helpful & needed.

Tooth brushing technique

  • Use a soft nylon toothbrush with round ended bristles.
  • Place the toothbrush with its bristles along the gumline at a 45 degree to long axis of the teeth. So the toothbrush is in contact with both tooth surface & gumline.
  • With gentle to n fro rolling movements, brush the outer tooth surfaces of 2 to 3 teeth without dislodging the tips of the bristles. Apply 20 strokes in same position around the arch brush three teeth at a time.
  • Similarly maintaining 45 degree angle brush using back, forth rolling motion along all the inner tooth surfaces.
  • Tilt brush vertically behind the front teeth. Make several up & down strokes using the front half of the brush.
  • Place the brush against the biting surface of the teeth. Gently do back & forth scrubbing motion. Brush the tongue from back to front to remove color producing bacteria or use tongue cleaner to clean tongue.
  • Continue around the arch, brushing around three teeth at a time, then use the same method to brush the  inner surfaces of the teeth. To help reach the inner surfaces of the front teeth, insert the brush vertically.







To remove the plaque between your teeth, you need to do flossing at least once a day.

Flossing Technique :

  • Floss should be long enough to hold securely; 14 to 18 inches is usually sufficient.
  • Stretch the floss tightly between the thumb & fore fingers.
  • Pull the floss tightly into a c shaped around the
    side of the tooth & slide it under the gumline.
  • Clean the surface of tooth by using an up & down motion.

Mouth Rinsing

Generally proper brushing & flossing will loosen food particles & tooth plaque bacteria. These loosen particles can be easily removed by vigorous rinsing with water.

Repeated rinsing also results in a rapid lowering of sugar level in saliva, therefore, it is recommended that after having sugar rich food, one should rinse his or her mouth vigorously two or three times with as much water as possible to held in the mouth.(chlorhexidine mouth rinse)

Bad breath (Hallitosis)

The foul smell may have oral cause or might caused by extra oral factors. Some of oral contributing factors are retention of odoriferous food partical on or in between teeth, in cavities or on tongue, artificial dentures. Smokers breath & healing surgical or extraction wounds etc.
Tooth decay & gum diseases can cause foul smell because of accumulated food debris.
Extra-oral sources include respiratory tract infection such as bronchitis, pneumonia etc, or
Breath odor due to aromatic substances in blood stream. (Diabetic breath, alcoholic or uremic breath)